There are so many benefits of music that we can enjoy. The science of music is fascinating and can help us be more productive, enjoy music more and leverage the benefits of music in every area of our life.
Music can soothe the brokenhearted, motivate runners and kickoff the most epic dance parties, but it also has some serious scientific benefits for our health and overall wellbeing.
Listening to music has been shown to improve memory functioning, increased rate of healing, improve your workouts and more.
And now… a crazy science fact:
The Scientific Benefits of Music Table of Contents
- Music Benefits Memory
- Music Improves Workouts
- Music Helps You Heal
- Music Reduces Stress and Eases Anxiety
- Music Improves Sleep Quality
- Music Benefits Your Task List
- Music for Brainstorming
- Music for Working
- Music for Working Out
How else can we benefit from music? Listening to music is one of the easiest and most fun ways to strengthen the bonds between people. Researchers have found a part of our brain dedicated solely to music. Because of this, all sorts of reactions occur in our brains in response to hearing it. Among the most powerful responses are the ones that are elicited when we listen with other people.
Here are three ways that music can improve your relationships:
- Hearing music alters the neurochemicals in our brains and triggers the release of dopamine and endorphins. These neurotransmitters boost our mood and allow us to share that positive chemical rush with the people we are with.
- Several studies observing indigenous people who use music in their community gatherings, found that listening to music together strengthens the bonds in groups by making people feel like they belong, increasing people’s positive perceptions of the people they are sharing the experience with.
- Another part of the power of music comes from the way the beat synchronizes people–even if it’s just a slight sway, tapping of your foot, or nodding of your head, moving in sync with other people makes you in tune with them.
Want even more ideas about how to leverage the science of music? Read on…
Music Benefits Memory
Patients with memory loss can often remember songs and specific song lyrics. Doctors will often use music and lyric recall to help individuals retrieve lost memories. Certain music can trigger particularly unique memories- music from a specific time period will trigger memories from that time period. Want to remember something from the past? Listen to songs you listened to during that time!
Music and its effect on memory has been a heated debate in the scientific world, but researchers now have evidence that the processing of music and language, specifically memorizing information, rely on some of the same brain systems. Researchers have also uncovered evidence that suggests the music we heard as teenagers has a greater emotional bind to our brain than anything we’ll listen to as adults. This idea of musical nostalgia is a fun exercise for anyone, but is most impactful for people suffering from memory loss, including those with dementia or Alzheimer’s.
Here’s a story about the transformative power of music from one man whose father has Alzheimer’s:
“As a family, we didn’t know what to do when our father was diagnosed with this Alzheimer’s disease. We have been through so many stages and now he seems to just be deteriorating to nothing. However, the music seems to have brought back some of his brain to him!”
Music and musical training have also been shown to protect the aging brain and keep it healthy.
University of Kansas Medical Center researchers conducted an experiment where they divided 70 healthy adults, ages 60 to 83, into three groups based on their amount of musical experience: no musical training, one to nine years of music lessons and at least 10 years of musical study.
The participants, who had similar fitness and education levels and were free of Alzheimer’s disease, were given several cognitive tests:
- Those with the greatest amount of musical experience did best on these tests of mental acuity, followed by those with less musical study followed by those who never took music lessons.
- Compared to non-musicians, the individuals with a high degree of musical experience had much higher scores on the cognitive tests, including those related to visual and spacial memory, naming objects and the brain’s ability to adapt to new information
The really cool part? The benefits of musical study and training were still apparent even in participants who no longer played an instrument.
Bottom Line: You can now tell your mom that those hours of trombone practice for high school band were totally worth it.
Music Improves Workouts
StairMaster got you down? Feeling sluggish on the treadmill?
Grab your earbuds and get jammin’!
Not only can music distract you from “bodily awareness” aka the aches and pains of working out, it has a health effect too.
Listening to music releases endorphins in the brain. Endorphins give us a heightened feeling of excitement. In addition to feeling euphoric, endorphins quell anxiety, ease pain and stabilize the immune system. With high endorphin levels, we have fewer negative effects of stress.
Turning up your tunes can also up the effort you exert during exercise. In one study, researchers found that cyclists worked harder and biked a further distance when listening to faster music as compared to music with a slower tempo. When the tempo slowed, so did their pedaling and their entire effect. Their heart rates fell and their mileage dropped. They reported that they didn’t like the music much. On the other hand, when the tempo of the songs was upped 10 percent, the men covered more miles in the same period of time, produced more power with each pedal stroke and increased their pedal cadences.
For pace-based exercises like running or weight-lifting, music can help regulate rhythm and signal to the brain when the body should move. This signal helps us to use our energy more efficiently, so we’re not exhausting ourselves too soon.
Got the groove? In scientific terms, groove is often described as a musical quality that can induce movement in a listener. Basically, you can’t stop yourself from moving! The next time you hit the gym, channel your inner diva and get groovin’!
Bottom Line: Make a playlist just for the gym or for working out. Need some ideas? Check out this list of the 100 best workout songs from FITNESS. (and see the rest of our playlists below!)
Music Helps You Heal
A study from Austria’s General Hospital of Salzburg found that patients recovering from back surgery had increased rates of healing and reported less pain when music was incorporated into the standard rehabilitation process.
“Music is an important part of our physical and emotional well-being, ever since we were babies in our mother’s womb listening to her heartbeat and breathing rhythms.” – Lead clinical psychologist of Austria General, Franz Wendtner.
Music connects with the autonomic nervous system (brain function, blood pressure and heartbeat) and the limbic system (feelings and emotions).
When slow music is played, the bodily reaction follows suit– the heart blow slows down and blood pressure drops. This causes the breath to slow, which helps release tension in the neck, shoulders, stomach and back. Listening to slow or calming music on a regular basis can help our bodies relax, which over time, means less pain and faster recovery time.
Finnish researchers conducted a similar study, but with stroke patients. They found that if stroke patients listened to music for a couple of hours a day, their verbal memory and focused attention recovered better and they had a more positive mood than patients who did not listen to anything or who listened to audiobooks.
These findings have led to a clinical recommendation for stroke patients: everyday music listening during early stroke recovery offers a valuable addition to the patients’ care by providing an “individually targeted, easy-to-conduct and inexpensive means to facilitate cognitive and emotional recovery,” says Teppo Särkämö, author of the study.
With brain-imaging techniques, such as functional MRIs, music is increasingly being used in therapy for brain-related injuries and diseases. Brain scans have proven that music and motor control share circuits, so music can improve movement for those with Parkinson’s disease and for individuals recovering from a stroke. Neurologic music therapy should become part of rehabilitative care, according to this group of doctors. They believe that future findings may well indicate that music should be included on the list of therapies and rehabilitation for many disorders.
Bottom Line: Adding music to a standard rehabilitative process helps patients heal.
Music Reduces Stress and Eases Anxiety
Music has a unique link to our emotions, and research has found that it can be used as an extremely effective stress management tool.
Just like listening to slow music to calm the body, music can also have a relaxing effect on the mind. Researchers at Stanford University found that listening to music seems to be able to change brain functioning to the same extent as medication. Since music is so widely available and inexpensive, it’s an easy stress reduction option.
So, what type of music reduces stress best? Here’s what we found:
- Native American, Celtic, Indian stringed-instruments, drums and flutes
- Sounds of rain, thunder and nature sounds
- Light jazz, classical and easy listening music
You must be the ultimate judge, however, of “relaxing music.” If Mozart isn’t quite doing it for you, explore other options that help you naturally relax.
HelpGuide.org, a nonprofit mental health and well-being organization encourages individuals to practice a healthy sonic diet. They suggest that:
“When choosing locations to eat, hold business meetings, or visit with friends, be conscious of the sound environment, including the noise level and type of music that is played. Loud noisy environments, as much as we try to ignore them, can contribute to unconscious stress and tension build-up without us even knowing it.”
Just like junk food increases stress in our system, a poor sonic or listening diet can do the same. Choose quieter environments and settings to prime your body to relax and recharge.
Making music can also release tension and relieve stress. Dana Marlowe, a technology accessibility consultant, gets relief from her daily work challenges in her toddler’s playroom:
“I just jam out with his toys — the xylophone, the baby piano. I almost have ‘Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star’ down.”
Research has shown that casual music-making can short-circuit the stress response system and keep it from recurring or becoming chronic. WebMD tells us that “stress starts in the brain and then kicks off a chain reaction that switches on the stress response in every cell of our bodies. Over time, these cellular switches can get stuck in the ‘on’ position, leading to feelings of burnout, anger, or depression as well as a host of physical ailments.
Bottom line: Both listening to and making music can alleviate mild and chronic stress.
Music Improves Sleep Quality
Insomnia and other sleep deprivation issues can wreak havoc on our lives. What if music could help?
According to one study conducted by Harmat, Takács and Bódizs, 94 students (ages 19 to 28) with sleep complaints were brought into the lab. Participants were split into 3 groups. The first group listened to classical music at bedtime for 45 minutes for 3 weeks. The second group listened to an audiobook at bedtime for 45 minutes for 3 weeks. The control group received no intervention.
Sleep quality and depressive symptoms were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Beck Depression Inventory respectively. The results?
The participants who listened to music showed statistically significant improvements in sleep quality and a decrease in depressive symptoms. There were no statistically significant results found for the audiobook or control group.
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes claim that “an estimated 40 million Americans annually live with chronic sleep disorders, while 20 million more have trouble sleeping from time to time.”
In one meta-analysis of 10 randomized studies, researchers tracked 557 participants with chronic sleep disorders. They found that sleep quality was improved significantly with music and concluded that “music can assist in improving sleep quality of patients with acute and chronic sleep disorders.”
Get even more tips on a good night’s rest in our article The Science of Better Sleep.
Bottom Line: Sleep better, longer and with fewer disturbances by listening to music at bedtime.
Music Benefits Your Task List
Music is one of the best ways to motivate yourself. Research has found that music can change your effectiveness depending on the type of work or task:
- Pre-task music: This is music that gets you in the right mindset before the task at hand.
- During-task music: This is music you listen to while you are working to stay on track and enhance performance.
- Post-task music: This is music to help you wind down, recover, and cool down after an intense task.
Researcher Anneli Haake was curious if everyone responds to music the same way. She found that extroverts tend to work better while listening to music, while introverts find music distracting.
For introverts, your “Pre-task” and “Post-task” playlists are more important. During your task, you might want white noise, purely instrumental music, or simply noise-canceling headphones as your “playlist.”
Our Favorite Music for Work: Playlists to Help You
Take advantage of the benefits of music by incorporating music into as many areas of your life as possible. Here are a few of our favorite playlists to play to help you bond in these unique situations.
- What music reminds me of how I want to feel?
- Is there a movie soundtrack that tells the story I want for my story?
- What is your anthem?
- Is there a song from my teenage or college years that will get me in the right mindset?
Music for Brainstorming
Music isn’t often incorporated into brainstorm sessions because it can be seen as a distraction. However, with the right, subtle playlist, the background noise can increase your group’s willingness and ability to collaborate with one another while you generate new ideas. Here is a 2 hour instrumental that will help your productivity without distractions:
Music for Working
If you need to crank out some work and hype up your productivity try these two playlists:
Fast and upbeat
Soft and slow
Music for Working Out
Pushing yourself through the pain and sweat of a rigorous workout is much more rewarding when you have a friend by your side, sharing your pain and reminding you not to quit. To strengthen your connection during your workout, listen to these powerful songs that will give you an extra boost to help you up your workout or gym game:
The next time you crank up the music in an impromptu dance party, remember all of the health benefits too. Music has been proven to help our bodies heal, improve memory, alleviate stress and more. And that is most certainly, music to my ears.
About Vanessa Van Edwards
Lead Investigator, Science of People
I’ve always wanted to know how people work, and that’s what Science of People is about. What drives our behavior? Why do people act the way they do? And most importantly, can you predict and change behavior to be more successful? I think the answer is yes. More about Vanessa.
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